浅谈瑞士对电信行业的进出口管制

原文始发于微信公众号(瑞中法协):浅谈瑞士对电信行业的进出口管制


本文原题为《Conditions for the commercialization of software specially designed for telecommunications equipment or systems in Switzerland?》,由瑞中法律协会会员,伯尔尼律师Margareth d’Avila Bendayan(以色列籍)为《瑞中法律评论》投稿。瑞中法律协会版权所有。张天泽翻译。







Conditions for the commercialization of software specially designed for telecommunications equipment or systems in Switzerland?
Margareth d’Avila Bendayan




The importation and marketing of technologies or software designed for telecommunications equipment or systems, in or from Switzerland, involves several legal aspects, tax law, copyright, and also other less known aspects.

出口瑞士或从瑞士进口及销售为电信设备,或相关系统设计的技术或软件涉及多个法律部门的约束,包括税法,版权以及其他鲜为人知的法规。


Indeed, Switzerland has a law as of 13 December 1996 on the control of goods usable for civil and military purposes and specific military goods (LCB). There is also an ordinance from 25 June 1997 on the export, import and transit of goods usable for civil and military purposes and specific military goods (OCB). These provisions impose strict conditions.

这可以追溯到瑞士1996年12月13日所颁布的法律,即 《关于管制可用于民用和军事目的的商品以及特定军事商品(LCB)》法令。瑞士在1997年6月25日还颁布国一项关于可用于民用和军事目的的货物以及特定军事产品的出口进口和过境的法令。这些法令规定了严格的条件。


This law applies to dual-use goods and specific military goods that are subject to international agreements. The Swiss Government determines which goods are covered by this law. 

该法律适用于受国际协议约束的军民两用商品和特定军事商品。瑞士政府决定该法律适用的范围,即涵盖商品的范围。


According to this law, the word “goods” includes products, technology and software. The term “dual-use goods” means goods that can be used for both civilian and military purposes. For the purposes of this Act, technology is defined as information not available to the public and not used for basic scientific research, which is necessary for the development, manufacture or use of items.

根据该法律,“商品”一词包括产品,技术和软件。术语 “双重用途商品”是指既可以用于民用目的又可以用于军事目的的商品。就该法令而言,技术的定义是对公众不可用且不用于基础科学研究的,且这对于产品的开发,制造或使用是必不可少的信息。


This law could apply, for example, to a system, which overcomes SSL encryption of online account services, and allows the collection of data from targets, the identification of target accounts, the automatic retrieval of archived messages, contacts and calendars.

举例而言,该法律适用于一种可能存在的账户自动化信息采集的系统,如果该系统能够破解在线帐户服务的SSL加密,并会从终端目标中收集数据,识别目标帐户,自动检索已归档的消息,联系人和日历。


The Swiss government can introduce licensing and reporting requirements for the use of, import, export, transit and brokerage of such goods. It may also order surveillance measures in respect of such items.

瑞士政府可进而以对此类商品的使用,进口,出口,转运和经纪引入许可和报告要求。并且还可以命令对此类物品采取监视措施。


In this context, import permits shall be issued only for persons having their domicile, registered office or place of business in the Swiss customs territory or in a Swiss customs enclave. SECO (State Secretariat for Economic Affairs) may require company descriptions, order confirmations, sales contracts or invoices, and final declarations from the final recipient. Import permits are valid for two years.

在这种情况下,进口许可证应仅针对在瑞士领土或瑞士海关的辖区,具有住所,注册办事处或营业地点的人员签发。瑞士的国家经济事务秘书处(SECO)可能要求公司描述,订单确认,销售合同或发票以及最终收货人的最终声明。进口许可证有效期为两年。


Failure to comply with these conditions may be a criminal offence. For example, the transfer from Switzerland of technology or software to recipients abroad or the brokering of such technology or software, or failure to observe the conditions and charges laid down in a license is punishable by imprisonment or a fine of up to CHF 1 million or, in serious cases, by imprisonment for up to 10 years, and the custodial sentence may be accompanied by a fine of up to CHF 5 million.

违反这些法律法规可能构成刑事犯罪。例如,从瑞士向外国实体转让技术或软件,或者将该技术或软件许可给他人,以及不遵守许可规定的条件和指控,可处以最高100万瑞士法郎的监禁或罚款,或,情节严重者,可处以10年以下有期徒刑,并处以500万瑞士法郎以下的罚款。


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